周曙光的网络日志 https://www.zuola.com/weblog You never know what you can do till you try. Sat, 20 Feb 2021 14:26:29 +0000 zh-CN hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.1.9 Clubhouse上的 #公民论坛 的过去、现在和未来 https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/02/2503.htm https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/02/2503.htm#comments Thu, 11 Feb 2021 03:08:06 +0000 http://www.zuola.com/weblog/?p=2503 Continue Reading ...]]> 佐拉在2021年2月3日凌晨3点从一个需要天亮后上班的名为Yiyuan Huang的台湾记者那里接手moderate的群,群名为“记者政治不正确群”,我负责宣导秩序和引导气氛但不引导话题,鼓励大家发言,两岸三地欧美的汉语使用者分享很多话题,如审查,文化,身份,意识形态,国家,民主。

没有审查的理性讨论氛围感动了许多人,我决定当成社会实验,立志运行这个群组到除夕,希望维持一个有趣的公共空间,供汉语使用者进行多元的文化交流。 

截止2011年2月11日上午,目前公民论坛持续运行了199个小时, 前面四天维持了原来的群名“记者政治不正确群”。直到2月7号改名为 #公民论坛

2019年,我写了一篇文章叫《关于管理网上公开群组的思考》,我认为,通过 建立群组的管理规则,规避和预先应对可能的破坏,维持友善理性的讨论气氛,维持有开放性的公共讨论空间,是创始人和管理员的工作。  

如何摧毁理性的对话空间?

  • 霸占话筒
  • 针锋相对
  • 情绪对抗
  • 人身攻击

我基于以上认知,创建了一个主持人不介入话题只维持秩序的 #公民论坛,任何人可以发言,不设话题,不设立场,不试图说服他人,鼓励分享想法,补充看法,或抛出新话题,发言时间两分钟为限。 

在“#公民论坛”讨论有哪些具体的规则呢?规则就是在两分钟内分享自己的主题,两分钟后会有闹钟提醒,主持人会继续给30秒,请尽量开始总结;只是分享,只是说出事实,不试图说服他人,不建议反驳和批判,不希望有情绪化表达,不建议使用反问句,希望籍此维持和平理性的氛围。

最初接手“记者政治不正确群”的时候,很多朋友一直在里面听,很多朋友给予正向的反馈,觉得这种多元的文化交流体验很棒,有些朋友听了十多个小时后也开始举手参与发言。有一天晚上我晕过去一段时间,其他moderator便主动担任协调者,等我醒来时,惊讶地发现群里需的讨论气氛还在,没有我也没有关系,其他moderator维持了我设立的维持秩序的指导方针。

有參與者說這個群組像民主的開始,像希臘城邦的公民論壇,每個人都有機會發表演說。

来自澳大利亚的公共广播机构ABC的肖邦 @BangXiao_ 深度参与了#公民论坛 的交流与互动,一起探讨传媒、媒体、新闻、新闻自由、公共媒体、独立媒体等话题。

有时候会讨论“华人/Chinese ”这个词的意涵,到底是文化身份,是国籍身份,还是种族身份。

流亡海外的香港抗争者 张昆阳 和其他网友在分享对香港的看法。

海外维吾尔活动家哈瑞博士和华盛顿律师热伊汗·艾塞提也来 #公民论坛  和其他维吾人展开长达数小时的分享,让来自中国的企业家和网友开始想要验证维吾人的真实境遇。

用  #公民论坛  专访周锋锁的过程中,流亡德国的艺术家艾末末也来围观了采访过程。德国自干五老雷也来 赞叹  #公民论坛 的气氛。

铁打的营盘流水的兵,议题一直在切换,但理性沟通的氛围一直在。

接下来,#公民论坛  要如何才能持续经营到下一个除夕呢? 首先,我需要征集跨时区的Modetator一起维持群组的秩序,制定值班计划,第二,我要设计更多的互动项目和采访项目,第三,募集款项用于补贴Modetator付出的时间,制定募款计划。有兴趣参与这个项目的朋友欢迎在clubhouse里的 #公民论坛 申请发言并与我联系。

]]>
https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/02/2503.htm/feed 6
Why does censorship work and What is the goal of the CCP’s censorship https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/01/2501.htm https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/01/2501.htm#respond Fri, 29 Jan 2021 02:25:22 +0000 http://www.zuola.com/weblog/?p=2501 Continue Reading ...]]>
Zola’s speech at China Focus Princeton

Censorship, the whipping of the weak by the strong, shapes your behavior and molds your thinking. In one-party dictatorship China, censorship is omnipresent, including but not limited to the internet, television, newspapers, radio, magazines, books, textbooks, and even singing events, sporting events, and commercial activities.

If you are in China, you know that you cannot mention the Tiananmen Massacre or the June 4 student movement on the Internet, that your content will not be published successfully, that you will be warned, or even that your account will be deleted or your website will be ordered to be shut down by the authorities.

If you’re from Taiwan, you know that you can’t say Taiwan is a country , and your Chinese clients will upset with you and correct you with the fixed phrase “Taiwan is a sacred and integral part of China”. 

If you were an NBA manager and you took to social media to show solidarity with the people of Hong Kong, the Chinese government would stop broadcasting NBA games and Chinese companies would stop doing business with NBA teams.

If you were from the United States and mentioned Wuhan pneumonia and the Wuhan virus, your Chinese friends would blame you were “racist” and ask you to use the term “novel coronavirus” instead.

All of this are censorship from China.

Since 2000, with the assistance of Chinese internet giants such as Baidu, Google, Sina, Tencent, and network infrastructure providers, the CCP has created a comprehensive Great Firewall (GFW) through countless propaganda directives, blocking directives, website blacklists, and IP blacklists, combined with hardware and administrative processes to create a environment like that of the movie Truman’s World, where the person inside the GFW thinks he sees the whole world, but he does not know that world is a world carefully designed for him.

In 2019, TikTok became the Chinese company with the ability to reach more than 100 million youth in the U.S.  U.S. Senators asked the National Intelligence Agency to investigate TikTok. TikTok follows the instructions of the CCP to censor content, and the CCP influences the ideology of the younger generation in the United States. If TikTok makes American youth yearn for a socialist state, admire authority, idolize dictators, be hostile to liberalism, and have pride in their skin color, it will affect U.S. national security. Censorship from the CCP can influence social cognition,  academia, policy, elections, and even destroy the existing social order in the United States.

In 2021, Tesla CEO Elon Musk spoke about China in an interview, saying he had a “positive experience” talking with Chinese government officials during his visit to China and praising the Chinese government for caring about the well-being of its people, perhaps more than the U.S. government. Musk, as a business superstar, was treated decently by the Chinese government and give a positive opinion of the Chinese government. The story like the Potemkin’s village in Russian history, his perception was deceived by the censored propaganda content too.

The story of Potemkin’s village is that General Potemkin used mobile homes to deceive the Catherine the Great  in order to convince her that his territory was very rich on the riverbank where she was inspecting. Not showing the real riverbank was “censorship”, showing the reassembled house was “propaganda”, and the empress’s perception was “shaped”.

#Why does censorship work? 

How is cognition formed? Humans do not have free will. All human cognition is acquired through learning.

Humans are higher animals with the intelligence, and the intelligence is positively correlated with age. Positive correlation means that when one variable increases or decreases, the other variable also increases or decreases. For example, a 5-year-old child will have a weaker judgment than a 10-year-old child.

intelligence is also positively correlated with happiness. Analysis of Cognitive Ease suggests that by delivering information in a firm, joyful tone and by repeating it over and over again, humans become proficient at completing the conditioning reflex and the learning process of pleasure.

intelligence is positively correlated with the number of statistical samples. One person who lives a solitary life in isolation and another who is contact to more people, reads more books and news, and learns more about possibilities must have different judgmental abilities.

Intelligence is also related to the direction of attention. Each person’s career direction is not exactly the same, and the ability to make judgments in different fields will also be different. For example, architects know more about how to prevent buildings from being destroyed by accidents than political scientists.

In short, intelligence is related to “learned possibilities. Those who have not learned about the possibility of another event will not be able to response to an accident more quickly, and will thus show a slower ability to judge.

Learning is about learning more about possibilities, and censorship is about intervening in the learning process, controlling the flow of information you receive and shaping your perceptions through both “censorship” and “propaganda” . A lie repeated a thousand times can become the truth.

# What is the goal of the CCP’s censorship?

The CCP controls all media, and censorship is introduced to shape a submissive population and to maintain dominance.

The CCP destroyed its own economy during its first three decades in power until it declared reform and opening up in the late 1970s and began to accept the olive branch from the United States, receiving assistance from the international community led by the United States and benefiting from globalization. But for 40 years, the Communist Party only carried out economic reforms and refused to carry out political reforms, or in Hu Jintao’s words, “no Z-turn”, he means will not going to make major changes.

In the Xi Jinping era, the Communist Party’s sense of crisis has intensified, so it has suppressed the space for civil society activities. It has reshaped the public opinion environment by cracking down on NGOs, Internet influencer, public intellectuals, and human rights lawyers, and by strengthening Internet censorship.

Internet opinion leaders have been confessed on television one after another, other opinion leaders and intellectuals have been silenced, students will report teachers with liberal-leaning statements, public figures will lose their jobs for statements that do not meet censorship standards, and Internet Influencer will be reported and criticized for political comment published during the Hu Jintao era.

Rational public discussion is no longer available, and the space for civil society resistance is increasingly compressed, while statist and nationalist sentiments are allowed to spread by Censorship System.

As a result, in mainstream social opinion, statism and nationalism became paramount, economic development became paramount, legal dignity is trampled on, and people’s basic human rights are trampled on; national leaders are worshipped and deified; the public cannot distinguish between the three concepts of party, government, and state; the government, police, and military are glorified; there is no opposition party; no distinction is made between military and party spending; the legitimacy of the CCP is glorified with economic development achievements; and even the origin of Wuhan pneumonia is denied.

Growing up in such an environment, Young people don’t know what humanitarian disasters were happening in Tibet, Xinjiang and Hong Kong. They lack understanding of human rights and respect for others. They believe that criticism of the CCP is “anti-China”, show strong nationalistic feelings and aggression when studying in Europe and the United States, accept the CCP’s claims of “Hong Kong thugs” and “Hong Kong seeking independence”, tear down the Lennon Wall, and actively defend the CCP’s narrative.

From others’ point of view, he was “brainwashed”, but from his own point of view, it was the firm beliefs of people he trusted that helped him to establish.

That is how censorship works.

]]>
https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/01/2501.htm/feed 0
佐拉在普林斯顿大学思启社的演讲稿 https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/01/2500.htm https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/01/2500.htm#respond Fri, 29 Jan 2021 02:21:23 +0000 http://www.zuola.com/weblog/?p=2500 Continue Reading ...]]> 美国的普林斯顿大学的学生组织思啟社邀请我去作为嘉宾就中国网络审查分享,我虽然是网络工程师背景,但我不想讨论审查和反审查的技术细节,在天网摄像头、社会信用系统和移动支付的社会里,无所不在的数字化监控让民间没有团结起来形成组织的空间。我很想讲“如何像独裁者一样思考”,但要展开这个话题不容易。我于是选“审查如何工作的”,介绍在宣传和审查下,人的认知为什么被操控,为何要操控,社会会变成什么样。

普林斯顿大学是美国的学校,我估计来旁听这个座谈的人会是英语使用者,但我的英文朗读缺乏训练导致朗读速度很慢,超过了十五分钟。所以我改为做中英文字幕的影片,就是下面这个影片了,欢迎观看。

佐拉在普林斯顿大学思启社网络审查讲座的演讲稿

审查,是强者对弱者的鞭打,塑造你的行为,塑造你的思想。在一党专政的中国,审查无所不在,包括但不限于网络、电视、报纸、电台、杂志、书籍、教科书,甚至演唱活动、运动赛事和商业活动。

如果你在中国,你会知道你不能在网络上提到天安门大屠杀和六四学生运动,你的内容不会发表成功,你会被警告,甚至你的帐号会被删除,或者你的网站会当局被勒令关掉。

如果你来自台湾,你会知道在中国不能说台湾是一个国家,你的中国客户会跟你翻脸,会用固定的句式“台湾是中国神圣不可分割的一部分”来纠正你; 

如果你是NBA经理人,你在社交媒体上声援香港人民的抗争,中国政府会停播NBA赛事,中国公司会停止与NBA球队的商业合作。

如果你来自美国,提到武汉肺炎和武汉病毒,你的中国朋友会认为你“种族歧视”,要求你改用“新型冠状病毒”。

这些都是来自中国的审查。

从2000年以来,在百度、谷歌、新浪、腾讯等中国网络巨头以及网络基础设施提供商的协助下,中共透过无数的宣传指令、封禁指令、网站黑名单、IP黑名单,结合硬件和行政流程打造了全面的防火长城(Great Firewall),打造出像电影《楚门的世界》的那样的言论环境,身处防火长城(GFW)内的人以为看到了整个世界,但他不知道那个世界是精心为他设计的世界。

2019年,抖音在美国成为拥有覆盖超过1亿青年的能力的中国公司,美国参议员要求国家情报局对抖音进行调查。抖音遵从中共的指令对内容进行审查,中共影响美国年轻一代的意识形态。若抖音让美国青少年对社会主义国家充满向往,对权威充满敬仰,把独裁者当偶像进行崇拜,对自由主义充满敌意,对肤色充满自豪感,这将影响美国的国家安全。来自中共的审查能影响社会认知,影响学术界,影响政策,影响选举,甚至摧毁美国现有社会秩序。

2021年,美国特斯拉执行长马斯克(Elon Musk)在受访中谈及中国,称他在造访中国期间,与中国政府官员交谈时有“积极的体验”,并称赞中国政府很关心人民福祉,可能比美国政府对人民福祉“更有责任感”。马斯克作为一个商界巨星,被中国政府体面的招待,得出对中国政府正面的评价,他和俄罗斯历史上那个参观波特金将军的村庄的俄罗斯女皇一样,他的认知被经过审查的宣传内容欺骗了。

波特金村庄的故事就是波将金将军为了让俄罗斯女皇相信自己的领地非常富有,在女皇巡查的河岸使用移动的房子来欺骗女皇。不让看真实的河岸是“审查”,给看重新组装的房子是“宣传”,女皇的认知就被“塑造”了。

# 审查为什么能起作用? 

认知如何形成的呢?人类并无自由意志。人的一切认知都是通过学习得来的。

人是有判断能力的高级动物,判断能力又跟年龄正相关。正相关的意思是指一个变量增加或减小时,另一个变量也增加或减小。举例说,5岁的人,极大概率下,判断能力会弱于10岁的人。

判断能力跟快乐也正相关。认知放松度(Cognitive Ease)方面的分析认为,只要带着坚定、欢乐的语气传递资讯,加上不断重复,人类能熟练地完成条件反射,完成快乐的学习过程。

判断能力跟统计采样数量正相关。一个离群索居过着孤僻的生活,另一个人接触更多的人和事物,阅读更多的书和新闻,了解更多的可能性,这两个人一定拥有不同的判断能力。

判断能力也跟关注方向相关。每个人的职业方向不完全一样,在不同领域表现出来的判断能力也会有差异。有相关领域训练的人能更为快速地作出判断,比如建筑师比政治学者更了解如何防范建筑被意外事件摧毁。

总而言之,判断能力跟“了解到的可能性”相关。没了解过另一种事件的可能性,就无法更为迅速的对意外的可能性作出判断,从而表现出较为迟钝的判断能力。

学习就是了解更多的可能性,而审查就是干预学习的过程,通过“审查和”宣传“两方面的工作,控制你获取的信息流向,塑造你的认知。谎言重复一千遍,能成为真理。

# 中共的审查的目标是什么?

中共控制了所有的媒体,推行审查制度是为了塑造顺从的民众,是为了维持统治地位。

中共在最初的执政的三十年里,摧毁了自己的经济,直到上个世纪70年代末期宣布改革开放,开始接受美国的橄榄枝,获得美国为首的国际社会的援助,从全球化中受益。但中共在四十来年只进行经济改革,拒绝进行政治体制改革,用胡锦涛的话就是“不折腾”。

在习近平时代,共产党的危机感更强烈了,于是打压民间社会的活动空间。通过打压NGO、网络大V、公共知识分子、人权律师,加强网络审查,重新塑造了舆论环境。

网络意见领袖陆续被上电视认罪,其他意见领袖和知识分子也噤若寒蝉,学生会举报有自由主义倾向言论的老师,公众人物会因为不符合审查标准的言论丢掉工作,网络大V在胡锦涛时代发表的时政评论会被举报和批判。

理性的公共讨论再也没有了,公民社会抗争空间日益压缩,而国家主义和民族主义情绪却放任蔓延。

造成的后果是,国家主义至上,民族主义至上,经济发展至上,法律尊严被践踏,人民的基本人权被践踏;国家领袖被崇拜,被神化;民众分不清党、政府、国家三个概念;美化政府,美化警察,美化军队;没有在野党和反对党;军费和党费不做区分;用经济发展成就美化中共合法性;武汉肺炎源自武汉被否认。

在这种的环境下成长的年青人,缺乏对人权理念的理解,缺乏对他人的尊重,认为批评中共就是“反华”,在欧美国家留学时表现出极强的民族主义情绪和攻击性,接受中共的“香港暴徒”和“港独”的说法,撕毁连侬墙,积极捍卫中共的口径。自他人看来是“被洗脑”,自他本人来看,则这是他信任的人帮助他竖立的坚定的信念。

跨越长城,走向世界
]]>
https://www.zuola.com/weblog/2021/01/2500.htm/feed 0